Reverse posterior interosseous flap: different approaches over the years – A systematic review


      The posterior interosseous flap (PIOF), as fasciocutaneous flap, represents an interesting option in reconstructive surgery of the upper limb. The PIOF allows coverage of losses of substance of the dorsal side of the hand and, with technical modifications, up to the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint without any need of microsurgical technique or the sacrifice of the main vascular axes for the hand. Its dimensions can reach up to 22 cm x12 cm and have excellent versatility since it can incorporate vascularized bone grafts and tendon grafts for complex substance losses. Despite the above-mentioned advantages, among the factors that limit its diffusion, indeed, there is the complex dissection technique originally described. Several authors also report a variable incidence of venous congestion, attributing it to the reverse flow vascularity of the flap. However, in the hands of experienced surgeons, this flap has a negligible incidence of complications. For these reasons, the authors performed a systematic review of the literature to organize the various technical updates over the years to extend the indications of the PIOF and reduce the incidence of complications, thus providing a valuable tool for reconstructive surgeons.


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