Advertisement

Painful exostosis of the external occipital protuberance

      A well-developed downward projecting spur from the external occipital protuberance (EOP) is sometimes referred to as an inion hook. The EOP can be broadly classified into three types: smooth form (type 1), crest type (type 2) and spine type (type 3). Anthropologically, its prominence is often used in the determination of sex in forensic investigations,
      • Walrath D.E.
      • Turner P.
      • Bruzek J.
      Reliability test of the visual assessment of cranial traits for sex determination.
      • Bilge Y.
      • Kedici P.S.
      • Alakoç Y.D.
      • Ülküer K.Ü.
      • İlkyaz Y.Y.
      The identification of a dismembered human body: a multidisciplinary approach.
      as a type 3 EOP is more common in males (63.4%).
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Walrath D.E.
        • Turner P.
        • Bruzek J.
        Reliability test of the visual assessment of cranial traits for sex determination.
        Am J Phys Anthropol. 2004 Oct; 125 (Available from:) ([Internet, cited 2014 May 29]): 132-137
        • Bilge Y.
        • Kedici P.S.
        • Alakoç Y.D.
        • Ülküer K.Ü.
        • İlkyaz Y.Y.
        The identification of a dismembered human body: a multidisciplinary approach.
        Forensic Sci Int. 2003 Nov; 137 (Available from:) ([Internet, cited 2014 Jun 24]): 141-146
        • Gülekon I.N.
        • Turgut H.B.
        The external occipital protuberance: can it be used as a criterion in the determination of sex?.
        J Forensic Sci. 2003 May; 48 (Available from:) ([Internet, cited 2014 Jun 24]): 513-516
        • Nevo O.
        • Bronshtein M.
        Fetal transient occipital bone protuberance during early pregnancy.
        Prenat Diagn. 2010 Sep; 30 (Available from:) ([Internet, cited 2014 Jun 24]): 879-881
        • Jackson J.L.
        • Kuriyama A.
        • Hayashino Y.
        Botulinum toxin a for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension headaches in adults: a meta-analysis.
        JAMA. 2012; 307: 1736-1745https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.505