Research Article| Volume 65, ISSUE 3, P312-319, March 2012

Preliminary report on the use of the Spectra™ implant for the correction of hypoplastic breasts with small-volume asymmetry

Published:October 12, 2011DOI:



      Small-volume breast asymmetry is a challenging problem. In 2008, an intra-operative volume-adjustable breast implant, consisting of a round textured implant with an outer chamber filled with cohesive silicone gel and inner chamber filled with varying amounts of saline solution was marketed in Europe. We describe our experience in the correction of hypoplastic breasts with small-volume asymmetry using this device.


      From May 2008 on, female patients presenting small-volume breast asymmetry were enrolled in the study. Standard pictures were taken before surgery and during follow-up visits over 1 year; standardised objective measurements of breast and chest were also taken. Statistical significance of value variation was assessed by Wilcoxon’s rank sum test. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate patients’ and external physicians’ judgement of breast symmetry achievement at the end of follow-up. The development of capsular contracture was assessed by measuring mammary compliance.


      A total of 38 females were treated. The implant pocket was subglandular in 14 cases, subpectoral in 14 and dual plane in 10. The adjustable implant was positioned in the smaller breast. A textured round implant, whose diameter was the same as the adjustable one, was positioned in the contralateral breast. Thirty-five patients were fully satisfied; three were partially satisfied. Good aesthetic and functional breast symmetry results were achieved in all patients, as demonstrated by the objective measurement statistical analysis. We observed one case of delayed wound healing, one of bleeding and one of seroma, with no major late complications. Baker’s classification grade III capsular contracture was detected in one patient. Both implants maintained their initial volume.


      The possibility of intra-operatively modifying implant volume according to breast volume differences provides a reliable corrective option for hypoplastic breasts with small-volume asymmetry. Although these results are encouraging, a longer follow-up is required to evaluate implant ageing and long-term outcome.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Grolleau J.L.
        • Lanfrey E.
        • Lavigne B.
        • Chavoin J.P.
        • Costagliola M.
        Breast base anomalies: treatment strategy for tuberous breasts, minor deformities, and asymmetry.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999; 104: 2040-2048
        • Godfrey P.M.
        Breast asymmetry: varied problems, varied solutions. The clinic in operative plastic surgery.
        Plastic Surgery Associates, New York1996
        • Rees T.D.
        • Dupuis C.C.
        Unilateral mammary hypoplasia.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1968; 41: 307-310
        • Nassab R.S.
        • Hamnett N.
        • Dhital S.
        • Juma A.
        The relationship between hand dominance and breast size difference in congenital breast asymmetry.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010; 125: 211e
        • Denoel C.
        • Aguirre M.F.
        • Bianco G.
        • et al.
        Idiopathic scoliosis and breast asymmetry.
        J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009; 62: 1303-1308
        • Novaković M.
        • Lukac M.
        • Kozarski J.
        • et al.
        Principles of surgical treatment of congenital, developmental and acquired female breast asymmetries.
        Vojnosanit Pregl. 2010; 67: 313-320
        • Cervelli V.
        • Araco F.
        • Araco A.
        • Grimaldi M.
        • Cervelli G.
        New view in the mammary asymmetry treatments.
        Minerva Chir. 2005; 60: 91-98
        • Médard de Chardon V.
        • Balaguer T.
        • Chignon-Sicard B.
        • Ihrai T.
        • Lebreton E.
        Constitutional asymmetries in aesthetic breast augmentation: incidence, postoperative satisfaction and surgical options.
        Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2009; 54: 340-347
        • Onesti M.G.
        • Mezzana P.
        • Martano A.
        • Scuderi N.
        Breast asymmetry: a new vision of this malformation.
        Acta Chir Plast. 2004; 46: 8-11
        • Malata C.M.
        • Boot J.C.
        • Bradbury E.T.
        • Ramli A.R.
        • Sharpe D.T.
        Congenital breast asymmetry: subjective and objective assessment.
        Br J Plast Surg. 1994; 47: 95-102
        • Vandenbussche F.
        Asymmetries of the breast: a classification system.
        Aesth Plast Surg. 1984; 8: 27-36
        • Gliosci A.
        • Presutti F.
        Asymmetry of the breast: some uncommon cases.
        Aesth Plast Surg. 1994; 18: 399-403
        • Smith Jr., D.J.
        • Palin Jr., W.E.
        • Katch V.L.
        • Bennett J.E.
        Breast volume and anthropomorphic measurements: normal values.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986; 78: 331-335
        • Ramirez O.M.
        • Heller M.D.L.
        • Tebbetts J.B.
        Dual plane breast augmentation: avoiding pectoralis major displacement.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002; 110: 1198
        • Tebbetts J.B.
        A system for breast implant selection based on patient tissue characteristics and implant-soft tissue dynamics.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002; 109: 1396-1409
        • Tebbetts J.B.
        Dual plane breast augmentation: optimizing implant-soft-tissue relationships in a wide range of breast types.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001; 107: 1255-1272
        • Tebbetts J.B.
        What is adequate fill? Implications in breast implant surgery.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996; 97: 1451-1454
        • Hidalgo D.A.
        • Spector J.A.
        Preoperative sizing in breast augmentation.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010; 125: 1781-1787
        • Muti E.
        Personal approach to surgical correction of the extremely hypoplastic tuberous breast.
        Aesth Plast Surg. 1996; 20: 385-390
        • Baker J.L.
        Augmentation mammaplasty.
        in: Owsley J.P. Peterson R.A. Symposium on aesthetic surgery of the breast. Mosby, St. Louis1978: 256-263
        • Spear S.L.
        • Baker Jr., J.L.
        Classification of capsular contracture after prosthetic breast reconstruction.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995; 96: 1119-1123
        • Alfano C.
        • Mazzocchi M.
        • Scuderi N.
        Mammary compliance: an objective measurement of capsular contracture.
        Aesth Plast Surg. 2004; 28: 75-79
        • Mazzocchi M.
        • Alfano C.
        • Fioramonti P.
        • Scuderi N.
        Changes over time in mammary compliance values following breast augmentation.
        Aesth Plast Surg. 2006; 30: 198-205

      Linked Article

      • Invited commentary
        Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic SurgeryVol. 65Issue 3
        • Preview
          In this well-written paper, Mazzocchi and his co-authors present their initial impression of the use of Mentor’s Spectra implants. These are adjustable implants that are predominantly silicone, but with a small inner lumen to allow volume (mainly projection) adjustment of the implant.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF