In East Asian population, a square face is considered unappealing as it imparts a coarse and masculine look. Therefore, Oriental women prefer to have an ovoid and slender facial contour, which is thought to be more feminine and attractive. Nowadays, mandibular contouring surgery has become a commonly performed procedure. Clinical data show that majority of patients who have severe form are characterised by a definite square-shaped face with low gonial angle. A square face is usually visualised in frontal view but the lateral view provides additional information regarding gonial angle, mandibular plane steepness, chin deficiency and more importantly, length of the ramus. These factors are the key points for a precise categorisation, design, selection of surgical methods and choosing the ostectomy line for contouring on a square face with low angle.
Patients and methods
From 2005 to 2009, 94 women were diagnosed as square face with low angle. Three types of surgical design based on procedures such as mandibular ‘V-Line’ ostectomy, mandibular outer cortex split ostectomy, sliding genioplasty and inlay bone graft in various combinations were constructed, depending upon the presenting facial features.
Precise categorisation, designs and techniques resulted in higher satisfaction as these procedures provided an overall narrowing and harmonising effect on the lower facial contour postoperatively.
Patients with square face and low gonial angle come with multitude of features so that design and technique applied should be tailored to each individual to achieve perfection.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Mandibular contouring surgery by angular contouring combined with genioplasty in orientals.Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998; 101: 461-472
- Mandibular contouring surgery by angular contouring combined with genioplasty in orientals.Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004; 113: 425-430
- Lower face reduction with full-thickness marginal ostectomy of mandibular corpus-angle followed by corticectomy.J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010; 63: 1251-1259
- Mandibular anatomy related to sagittal split ramus osteotomy in Koreans.Yonsei Med J. 1997; 38: 19-25
- Correction of square jaw with low angles using mandibular “V-line” ostectomy combined with outer cortex ostectomy.Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010; 109: 197-202
- The effect of different reduction mandibuloplasty types on lower face width and morphology.Aesth Plast Surg. 2008; 32: 593-598
- Mandibular angle reduction versus mandible reduction.Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004; 114: 1263-1269
- Refinement in aesthetic contouring of the prominent mandibular angle.Aesth Plast Surg. 1994; 18: 283-289
- Importance of the chin in lower facial contour: narrowing genioplasty to achieve a feminine and slim lower face.Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008; 122: 261-268
- Reduction mandibuloplasty: Ostectomy of the lateral cortex around the mandibular angle.J Craniofac Surg. 2001; 12: 314-325
Published online: September 15, 2011
Accepted: August 1, 2011
Received: May 30, 2011
© 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.