Tissue expanders with an external percutaneous tube were described initially by Newman,
1then a remote subcutaneous inflation port which is inflated percutaneously was described by Radovan.
- Neumann C.G.
The expansion of an area of skin by progressive distension of a subcutaneous balloon.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 1957; 19: 124-130
2Later, an injection port which is integrated into the permanent implant was devised especially for breast reconstructions.
- Radovan C.
Breast reconstruction after mastectomy using the temporary expander.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 1982; 69: 195-208
3Although the tissue expanders with self-contained ports require one stage and a simpler operation, they do pose some problems; their palpation ring can erode the overlying tissue or the expanders may be punctured inadvertently.
- Lapin R.
- Eliot M.
- Juri H.
The use of an integral tissue expander for primary breast reconstruction.
Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1985; 9: 221-226
- Cohen I.K.
Silicone expander with self-contained valve.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 1985; 74: 279-280
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- The expansion of an area of skin by progressive distension of a subcutaneous balloon.Plast Reconstr Surg. 1957; 19: 124-130
- Breast reconstruction after mastectomy using the temporary expander.Plast Reconstr Surg. 1982; 69: 195-208
- The use of an integral tissue expander for primary breast reconstruction.Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1985; 9: 221-226
- Silicone expander with self-contained valve.Plast Reconstr Surg. 1985; 74: 279-280
- Manga-Site tissue expander: an innovation for injection site location.Plast Reconstr Surg. 1988; 8: 605-607
- A new tissue expander: X marks the spot.Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1987; 96: 205-206
- Use of ultrasound to locate a “lost” tissue expander injection port.Plast Reconstr Surg. 1986; 78: 250
- The case of floating injection port.Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002; 110: 991
Published online: October 08, 2007
© 2007 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.