Advertisement
Research Article| Volume 60, ISSUE 3, P251-255, March 2007

Asymmetry of the palpebral fissure and upper eyelid crease in Koreans

  • W.C. Song
    Affiliations
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, 322 Danwol-dong, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-701, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • S.J. Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, National Medical Center, 243 Euljiro 6 (yuk)-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-799, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • S.H. Kim
    Affiliations
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, 322 Danwol-dong, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-701, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • K.S. Hu
    Affiliations
    Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Oral Science Research Center, Human Identification Research Center, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • H.J. Kim
    Affiliations
    Division in Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Department of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Oral Science Research Center, Human Identification Research Center, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
  • K.S. Koh
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 43 840 3733; fax: +82 43 851 9329.
    Affiliations
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, 322 Danwol-dong, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-701, Republic of Korea
    Search for articles by this author
Published:August 10, 2006DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2006.04.027

      Summary

      The purpose of the present study was to quantify the asymmetry of the palpebral fissure (PF) and upper eyelid crease in normal Koreans. Photographs were taken of 273 males and 321 females aged from 20 to 49 years with a standard head position and eyes open. We investigated the presence of asymmetries of the PF inclination (PFI), PF height (PFH), PF width (PFW) and the upper eyelid crease. The criteria for asymmetry were 2° for PFI, 1 mm for PFH and 3 mm for PFW. The PFH was larger on the right side than on the left side, whereas the PFW was larger on the left than on the right. The prevalence of asymmetry of the PFI, PFH and PFW was 22.3%, 24.2% and 18.3% in males, and 35.8%, 26.5% and 18.7% in females, respectively. In most cases of PF asymmetry, the PFH was larger on the right and the PFW was larger on the left. A left-only upper eyelid crease was more common than a right-only upper eyelid crease in both sexes. The asymmetry of the PF was generally more common in females.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Woo T.L.
        On the asymmetry of the human skull.
        Biometrika. 1931; 22: 324-341
        • Figalová P.
        Asymmetry of the face.
        Anthropologie. 1969; 7: 31-34
        • Shah S.M.
        • Joshi M.R.
        An assessment of asymmetry in the normal craniofacial complex.
        Angle Orthod. 1978; 48: 141-148
        • Farkas L.G.
        • Cheung G.
        Facial asymmetry in healthy North American Caucasians. An anthropometrical study.
        Angle Orthod. 1981; 51: 70-77
        • Farkas L.G.
        Anthropometry of the head and face.
        2nd ed. Raven Press, New York1994 (p. 103–11)
        • Ferrario V.F.
        • Sforza C.
        • Poggio C.E.
        • et al.
        Distance from symmetry: a three-dimensional evaluation of facial asymmetry.
        J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994; 52: 1126-1132
        • Kim Y.S.
        • Chung M.S.
        • Park D.K.
        • et al.
        Asymmetric study on the Korean skull using bilateral measurements.
        Korean J Phys Anthropol. 2000; 13: 271-279
        • Ishikawa T.
        Frequency and morphological change of double eyelid fold in relation to age.
        Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 1995; 70: 195-208
        • Lam B.L.
        • Lam S.
        • Walls R.C.
        Prevalence of palpebral fissure asymmetry in white persons.
        Am J Ophthalmol. 1995; 120: 518-522
        • Song W.C.
        • Park S.H.
        • Koh K.S.
        Metric and non-metric characteristics of Korean eyes using standardized photographs.
        Korean J Phys Anthropol. 2002; 15: 95-107
        • Zamora R.L.
        • Becker W.L.
        • Cruster P.L.
        Normal eyelid crease position in children.
        Ophthalmic Surg. 1994; 25: 42-47
        • Matsunaga R.S.
        Westernization of the Asian eyelid.
        Arch Otolaryngol. 1985; 111: 149-153