Survival of grafted tissues is dependent upon revascularisation. This study investigated revascularisation in a murine skin graft model, using two methods. The first involved 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI) labelling of the wound bed, prior to replacing the skin graft, to allow tracking of host cells into the grafts. At time points between day 3 and day 14 post-surgery, DiI-labelled cells which had tracked into the grafts, were found to co-localise with CD31 positive endothelial cells and patent perfused vessels (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–dextran perfusion), to show possible association with the vasculature. To further differentiate between graft and host-derived cells, C57BL/6 wild-type grafts were placed on enhanced-green fluorescent protein (e-GFP) transgenic mouse hosts, and at set times post-grafting examined using confocal microscopy.
Patent vessels were found at all depths of the graft by day 3. Host (DiI- or GFP-positive) cells were predominantly co-localised with graft vessels in grafts from day 3 onwards, with a similar morphology to control skin. Significantly more GFP labelled host cells were visualised in the superficial dermis at day 5 compared to day 3.
Initial restoration of circulation appears to be due to linkage between existing graft and bed vessels, followed by an influx of host cells with a definite perivascular distribution. These findings have implications for skin autografts and tissue engineered skin substitutes.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Quantification of total and perfused blood vessels in murine skin autografts using a fluorescent double-labeling technique.Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006; 117: 140-151
- Analysis of the tissue movements of embryonic wound healing – DiI studies in the limb bud stage mouse embryo.Dev Biol. 1995; 170: 102-114
- ‘Green mice’ as a source of ubiquitous green cells.FEBS Lett. 1997; 407: 313-319
- Use of the green fluorescent protein and its mutants in quantitative fluorescence microscopy.Biophys J. 1997; 73: 2782-2790
- Comparative assessment of cultured skin substitutes and native skin autograft for treatment of full-thickness burns.Ann Surg. 1995; 222: 743-752
- Ultrastructure of the human dermal microcirculation. II. The capillary loops of the dermal papillae.J Invest Dermatol. 1977; 68: 44-52
- Ultrastructure and organization of the cutaneous microvasculature in normal and pathologic states.J Invest Dermatol. 1989; 93: 2S-9S
- The early circulation in split skin grafts: restoration of blood supply to split-skin grafts.Acta Chir Scand. 1964; 127: 1-8
- The restoration of the vasculature of skin autografts in the rabbit.Pathology. 1975; 7: 79-90
- The vascularization of a free full thickness skin graft. II. A microangiographic study.Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg. 1969; 3: 11-17
- Studies of the origin of the vasculature in free skin grafts.Ann Surg. 1967; 166: 896-901
- Autologous skin grafts in the rat: vital microscopic studies of the microcirculation.Angiology. 1966; 17: 475-482
- Capillary morphogenesis during healing of full-thickness skin grafts: an ultrastructural study.Wound Repair Regen. 1995; 3: 213-220
- Development of microcirculation in full thickness autogenous skin grafts in mice.Am J Physiol. 1967; 212: 1081-1085
- Host–donor interactions in healing of human split-thickness skin grafts onto nude mice: in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical, and histochemical studies.Transplantation. 1992; 53: 1002-1010
- Mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into endothelial cells in vitro.Stem Cells. 2004; 22: 377-384
- Origins of circulating endothelial cells and endothelial outgrowth from blood.J Clin Invest. 2000; 105: 71-77
- Acceleration of skin graft healing by growth factors.Burns. 1996; 22: 10-14
- Delivery of FGF-2 but not VEGF by encapsulated genetically engineered myoblasts improves survival and vascularization in a model of acute skin flap ischemia.Gene Ther. 2001; 8: 523-533
- Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the effect of exogenous VEGF on survival of a random flap in the rat.Br J Plast Surg. 2003; 56: 653-659
- A freeze-injured skin graft model for the quantitative study of basic fibroblast growth factor and other promoters of angiogenesis in wound healing.Br J Plast Surg. 1994; 47: 349-359
- Stroma formation and angiogenesis by overexpression of growth factors, cytokines, and proteolytic enzymes in human skin grafted to SCID mice.J Invest Dermatol. 2003; 120: 683-692
- Stereologic study of the effects of prostaglandin E2 on the induction of angiogenesis in full-thickness skin autografts.Adv Skin Wound Care. 2004; 17 (): 202-204
Published online: March 12, 2007
Accepted: March 5, 2006
Received: January 16, 2006
☆This work was presented at the Winter Meeting of the British Association of Plastic Surgeons, at the Royal College of Surgeons in London, December 2004.
© 2006 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.