Review Article| Volume 46, ISSUE 8, P635-638, December 1993

Associated injuries in facial fractures: review of 839 patients

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Patients with facial trauma may have associated injuries requiring immediate or specialised attention. This paper reports the incidence and nature of significant associated neurosurgical, ocular, spinal, torso and extremity injuries in facial fracture patients treated by the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery from June 1989 to June 1992. Of 839 patients treated during the period, 95 patients (11.3%) sustained significant concomitant injuries outside the facial skeleton. There were 45 (5.4%) patients with associated neurosurgical injuries, 33 (3.9%) with ocular injuries, 8 (0.9%) with spinal injuries, 16 (1.9%) with injuries of the torso, and 62 (7.4%) with injuries of the extremities. The spectrum of the injuries is presented. Most neurosurgical injuries are a result of focal impact and the intervention required is related mainly to local fracture management and the repair of dural tears. The risk of significant ocular injury is highest when the fracture involves the orbit. Injuries of the spine, torso (chest, abdomen, pelvis), and limbs were seen mainly in road trauma patients.


        • Gwyn PP
        • Carraway JH
        • Horton CE
        • Adamson JE
        • Mladick RA
        Facial fractures associated injuries and complications.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1971; 47: 225-230
        • Luce EA
        • Tubb TD
        • Moore AM
        Review of 1,000 major facial fractures and associated injuries.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1979; 63: 26-30
        • Holt GR
        • Holt JE
        Incidence of eye injuries in facial fractures: an analysis of 727 cases.
        Otolaryngol Head and Neck Surg. 1983; 91: 276-279
        • Davidoff G
        • Jakubowski M
        • Thomas D
        • Alpert M
        The spectrum of closed-head injuries in facial trauma victims: incidence and impact.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1988; 17: 6-9
        • Lee KF
        • Wagner LK
        • Lee E
        • Soh JH
        • Lee SR
        The impact-absorbing effects of facial fractures in closed-head injuries. Analysis of 210 patients.
        J Neurosurg. 1987; 66: 842-847
        • Derdyn C
        • Persing JA
        • Broaddus WC
        • Delashaw JB
        • Jane J
        • Levine PA
        • Torner J
        Cradiofacial trauma: an assessment of risk related to timing of surgery.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990; 86: 238-245
        • Jabaley ME
        • Lerman M
        • Sanders HJ
        Ocular injuries in orbital fractures.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 1975; 56: 410-418
        • Gossmann MD
        • Roberts DM
        • Barr CC
        Ophthalmic aspects of orbital injury.
        Clin Plast Surg. 1992; 19: 71-85