This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
A hypothesis that facial wounds are the most common soft tissue injuries resulting from assault has been tested by examining the records of 225 consecutive victims of assault (169 males, median age 22 years; 56 females, median age 24 years) attending the Accident and Emergency Department of the Bristol Royal infirmary during 1984/1985. Demographic factors including age and sex of patients and time, day and month of attendance were recorded.
Results supported the hypothesis but significantly more men (72%) than women (57%) had facial injuries (χ2 = 12.2, p = <0.01). Chest, abdominal and limb injuries were proportionately more frequent in women (p = <0.001). Middle third wounds were the commonest facial injuried (affecting 59% of patients) followed by upper third (25%) and lower third (16%). Left-sided facial injury was more common than right-sided (χ2 = 14.6; p = <0.01). Young adult males most commonly attended, but very few elderly patients. “Risk” of assault appeared highest at weekends, between 10 pm and 2 am and between July and October. The involvement of plastic and oral surgeons in the treatment of assault victims is likely to be considerable.
- Jaw fractures in the County of Stockholm (1978–1980).International Journal of Oral Surgery. 1984; 13: 194
- Home Office Research Study No. 76. 1983;
- Aetiology and incidence of facial fractures in adults.International Journal of Oral Surgery. 1983; 12: 293
- The Neurologic Examination.2nd Edition. Pitman Medical Publishing Co. Ltd, 1958
- Urban violence in the United States.in: Implications for health and for Britain in the future: Discussion paper. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 76. 1983: 283
- Wife-battering: A preliminary survey of 100 cases.British Medical Journal. 1975; 1: 194
- The cerebrum—cerebral hemispheres.in: Neurology. 6th Edition. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield1966
- Fractures of the zygomatic complex in the South-East region of Scotland.British Journal of Oral Surgery. 1978; 15: 265
- Facial fractures: the results of a prospective four-year study.Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery. 1984; 12: 267
- Some observations on zygomatic fractures in the Eastern region of Scotland.British Journal of Oral Surgery. 1973; 11: 114
- Epidemiologic survey of accidental dentofacial injuries among U.S. Army personnel.Journal of Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology. 1979; 7: 30
- Maxillo-facial fractures.in: Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society. 74. 1978: 7 (supplement)
- The aetiology of maxillo-facial injuries, with special reference to the abuse of alcohol.International Journal of Oral Surgery. 1982; 11: 152
- Fractures of the malar (zygomatic) bone.Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. 1977; 22: 187
Police Crime Statistics (1960–1985). Home Office, London.
- Unemployment and assault.Lancet. 1986; II: 1038
- Non-parametric Statistics for the Behavioural Sciences.McGraw-Hill, New York1956
- “We get on each other's nerves”. Unemployment and the family.British Medical Journal. 1985; 291: 1707
- Victimisation in the inner city: A British case study.British Journal of Criminology. 1982; 22: 286
- The different patterns of fractures of the facial skeleton in four European countries.International Journal of Oral Surgery. 1977; 6: 3
- Changing etiologic pattern of jaw fractures.in: Jacobs J.R. Maxillofacial Trauma: An International Perspective. Praeger, New York1983
Accepted: April 6, 1987
Received: December 19, 1986
© 1987 The Trustees of British Association of Plastic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc.