Research Article| Volume 28, ISSUE 3, P177-180, July 1975

Surgical treatment of gynaecomastia

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Benign enlargement of the male breasts carries a feminine stigma and gives rise to considerable embarrassment. Surgical technique for correction must be designed to leave as few traces of female appearance as possible. Scars must be inconspicuous and away from the inframammary fold. The chest wall should become as masculine as possible and the type of operation will depend on the patient and the size of his enlarged breasts.


        • Dufourmentel C.
        • Mouly R.
        Plastie mammaire par le methode oblique.
        Annals Chirurgica Plastica. 1961; 6: 45
        • Hollander E.
        Die Operation der Mammahypertrophie und der Ha¨ngebrust.
        Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1924; 41: 1400
        • Ivy R.H.
        Editorial comment.
        Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1948; 3: 240
        • Kamper M.J.
        • Galloway D.V.
        • Ashley F.
        Abdominal panniculectomy after massive weight loss.
        Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1972; 50: 441
        • Letterman G.
        • Schurter M.
        Surgical correction of massive gynecomastia.
        Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1972; 49: 259
        • Maliniac J.W.
        Gynecomastia. Breast Deformities and their Repair.
        in: The Waverly Press, Baltimore, Maryland1950: 174
        • Pers M.
        • Bretteville-Jensen G.
        Reduction mammaplasty based on the vertical vascular bipedicle and “Tennis Ball” assembly.
        Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1972; 6: 61
        • Pitanguy I.
        Transareolar incision for gynecomastia.
        Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1966; 38: 414
        • Strombeck J.O.
        Reduction mammaplasty.
        in: Gibson T. Modern Trends in Plastic Surgery. Butterworth, London1964: 237
        • Webster J.P.
        Mastectomy for gynecomastia through a semicircular intra-areolar incision.
        Annals of Surgery. 1946; 124: 557
        • Wray R.C.
        • Hoopes J.E.
        • Davis G.M.
        Correction of extreme gynaecomastia.
        British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1974; 27: 39